Linux Introduction: Part 1

This post is dedicated to all Linux Lovers and someone who wants to get started with same in coming posts we will try to cover each and every aspect of Linux necessary. This series introduction to Linux will focus on basics and cover below parts.

History of Linux

What is Linux

Why we need to learn Linux

Features of Linux

Architecture or component of Linux

Linux File-system

Basics few commands.

Playing with directories.


User, Usergroup


So let’s get started.

History of Linux

In 1964 in Bell Laboratory a team of few engineers were working on a project, later they end up putting the same project on scrap. But two engineers or masters or genius took something out of it started working on it and ended up making Unics in 1975. The two genius were Dennis Ritchie and Kem Thompson.

Unics even pronounced as Unix stands for Uniplexed Information and Computing Services. Initially it was open source but few corporate took the code and started to make commercial version out of it few of them were.

SUN SOLARIS, MAC OS, IBM -AI and so on these were the flavours of Unix.

In 1991 a person called Linux Torwald who was studying in University of Helsinki was working on some project and he required Unix system, but due to cost he cannot afford it so he took one existing OS called minix for his project and in meantime created a new OS called Linux.

What is Linux

Linux is basically a kernel. What is kernel? Keep patience we’re going to see that later right now just think linux is an kernel.

Then why Linux is called OS? Basically an OS is kernel + GNU (applications/software).


Linux is an open source and has many flavours out of it,

  1. RHEL
  2. Fedora
  3. Debian
  4. Ubuntu
  5. Kali
  6. CentOS and etc

Why we need to learn Linux

If you are a Developer you should have knowledge about Linux.

If you are a tester you should have knowledge about it.

If you are admin you must learn linux

if you are DevOps/Cloud Engg it is mandatory for you to know Linux.

Around 85-90% of world’s application are running on Linux.

Features of Linux

Multiuser: Multiple users can access the same system and resources.


Security: Authentication (User login) and Authorisation (File Permission) is required.

Command line plus GUI.

Open Source.

Light Weight

Components of Linux/Architecture

linux architecture
linux architecture

Hardware: Physical components that a computer system requires to function. It encompasses everything with a circuit board that operates within a PC or laptop; including the motherboard, graphics card, CPU (Central Processing Unit

User: Normal User, you, me, us etc

Applications: Eg. Terminal

Shell: It takes the command from user verifies the syntax, verifies commands are related to application or not. If related pass on to kernel else revert with error.

Kernel: Heart of linux, Linux is basically a kernel. Kernel interacts with hardware. Kernel is used as a virtualisation which virtualizes hardware and allocate hardware to different process.

What is a process?

A program under execution is process.

What is a program?

A set of execution is a program.

So, user gives commands from application say terminal which is verified by shell if it feels command is okay it pass to terminal else revert back stating error.

So, in the next post we will be seeing remaining Linux topics. Do let me know if you have any queries.

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